13. The Predominated And The Predominator : Prakrti Purusa Viveka Yoga

Arjuna said: O Kesava, I would like to know the principles of the predominated, the predominator, the sphere of action, the knower of that sphere, knowledge, and the knowable.
13:1 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, this (gross and subtle or physical and mental) body is known as the sphere of action, or ksetra. The conscious entity (the soul) who experiences the existence of this body is described by seers of the truth as the knower
13:2 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

O Bharata, you should also know Me as the knower of all spheres of action (as the Supersoul situated within the heart of all living beings). Such fundamental and essential knowledge of the sphere of action and the knowers of that sphere (knowledge of the
13:3 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Now hear from Me a summary of the substance and nature of this sphere of action, and in which way it is produced. Also hear of the fundamental form and potency of the knower of the sphere of action.
13:4 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

That fundamental principle of the sphere of action and its knower has been variously described in many, many ways by the Rsis, the different Vedic aphorisms, as well as the aphorisms of the Vedanta-sutra scripture, which is replete with sound logic and i
13:5 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

The five major elements (earth, water, fire, air, and ether), the personality component of ego, the element of intellect, the primordial element of material nature, the five perceptual senses (eye, tongue, tactile sense, nose, and ear), the five senses o
13:6 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Humility, pridelessness, nonviolence, tolerance, honesty, service to the guru, purity, stability, self-control, detachment from sensual delights, absence of egotism, an objective view of the miserable defects of material life, that is, birth, death, the
13:8 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Now I shall describe jneya, the knowable, knowing which the ambrosial taste of internal self-satisfaction can be realized. That element principle is delineated as Brahman. It is beginningless and eternal. Subordinate to Me, it is indescribable in terms o
13:13 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

That superior principle presides over all directions, and pervades everything in the universe with His hands, legs, eyes, heads, faces, and ears everywhere (as Paramatma, the Supersoul).
13:14 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Although that supreme principle is the illuminator of all the senses and their objects, He is devoid of material senses; although completely aloof, He is the maintainer of all (in the form of Lord Visnu); and although transcendental to the three modes of
13:15 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Present within and without all beings, the supreme principle is the entirety of moving and stationary beings (as energetic transformation). Imperceptible to material science due to being subtle to the extreme, He is the most intimate, yet the most distan
13:16 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Although one indivisible element, He is situated as divided among all living beings. Although situated as an individual personality along with each and every soul, He is the indwelling monitor of all beings the singular, indivisible, omnipresent, aggrega
13:17 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

He is known as the illuminator of even the luminaries. He is known as the unmanifest, beyond even the darkness. He alone is the fundamental principle of knowledge and the knowable, and He is knowable by the aforementioned practices defined as knowledge.
13:18 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

You should certainly know material nature and the soul as beginningless; and all bodily, sensual, mental, intellectual, or egoistic transformations, as well as the consequences of the action of the material modes based on happiness, unhappiness, lamentat
13:20 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Material nature has been delineated as responsible for the cause as the domineering force of the senses, and the effect as the material body; and the (conditioned) soul himself is known to be responsible for his accrued happiness and unhappiness.
13:21 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Only due to being bewitched by material nature (prakrti) does the person (purusa) accrue the various joys and sorrows of that nature. His infatuation with material qualities is the sole cause of his taking repeated births in the wombs of higher and lower
13:22 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Within this same body (distinct from the soul) the Supreme Person or Parama Purusa is present as the soul's intimate witness, sanctioner, supporter, guardian, and Lord. He is known as the Supersoul.
13:23 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

One who thus understands these truths regarding the modal material nature, the predominated soul, and the predominating Supersoul such a person will not take birth again, regardless of his material situation.
13:24 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Some persons directly perceive the Supersoul situated within their hearts by dint of their perfect, pure divine realization. Some perceive Him by discrimination of spirit and matter, and some by meditational yoga or by the yoga path of selfless action. F
13:25 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

O Arjuna, best of the Bharatas, whatever is born in the world, whether moving or stationary, know it to be born from the combination of the sphere of action and its knower.
13:27 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

One who sees the Supreme Lord (in the form of the Supersoul) situated equally within all species from Lord Brahma down to the immobile life-forms, and who sees the Lord's imperishable nature remaining within the perishable such a person actually sees.
13:28 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

One who thus perceives the impartial and full-fledged almighty dominion does not degrade himself with wickedness he progresses toward the supreme destination.
13:29 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

One who sees that all action is performed by material nature (in the form of body, senses, and allied paraphernalia), actually sees himself, pure spirit soul, as the nondoer. He perceives that the pure spirit soul has no mundane nature or practice whatso
13:30 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

When a truly perceptive person can understand that the differentiation of the various species of life occurs only within material nature (or bodily distinction), and that all are again expanded from the same nature (at the time of universal creation) the
13:31 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

O Arjuna, since the Supersoul is by nature beginningless, transcendental, and eternally perfect, although He is situated in the body (along with the soul), He neither performs any action nor does He become implicated by the nature of the sphere of action
13:32 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

As ether is situated everywhere (such as in mud) and yet due to its subtle nature does not mix with anything, similarly, although pervading the entire body, the discriminating soul does not mingle with the nature of the body.
13:33 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

O Bharata, as one sun illuminates the entire universe so does the knower of the sphere of action, the Supersoul, illuminate the whole universe (and the souls within it); and so does the knower of the sphere of action, the soul, illuminate the entire body
13:34 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Those who, by the vision of knowledge, can distinguish between the sphere of action and its two knowers, and who can thus know the path of liberation of the soul from matter such persons attain to the transcendental atmosphere.
13:35 | The Predominated and the Predominator : Prakrti-purusa-viveka-yoga

Srimad Bhagavad Gita