The cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects.

1. Cold
The common cold also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza,head cold, or simply a cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the nose.Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.

Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat pharyngitis, and the sinuses sinusitis, occasionally involving either or both eyes via conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mostly due to the bodys immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks. The common cold may occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.

No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult getting two to three colds a year and the average child getting between six and twelve. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity.

2. Who Gets Cold
Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus HSV. There are two types of herpes simplex virus: HSV 1 and HSV 2. Both virus types can cause sores around the mouth herpes labialis and on the genitals genital herpes.
The herpes simplex virus usually enters the body through a break in the skin around or inside the mouth. It is usually spread when a person touches a cold sore or touches infected fluid such as from sharing eating utensils or razors, kissing an infected person, or touching that persons saliva. A parent who has a cold sore often spreads the infection to his or her child in this way. Cold sores can also be spread to other areas of the body.
The first symptoms of cold sores may include pain around your mouth and on your lips, a fever, a sore throat, or swollen glands in your neck or other parts of the body. Small children sometimes drool before cold sores appear. After the blisters appear, the cold sores usually break open, leak a clear fluid, and then crust over and disappear after several days to 2 weeks. For some people, cold sores can be very painful.
Some people have the virus but dont get cold sores. They have no symptoms.

3. Symptoms
Symptoms of a common cold usually appear about one to three days after exposure to a cold causing virus. Signs and symptoms of a common cold may include:
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Itchy or sore throat
  • Cough
  • Congestion
  • Slight body aches or a mild headache
  • Sneezing
  • Watery eyes
  • Low grade fever
  • Mild fatigue
    The discharge from your nose may become thicker and yellow or green in color as a common cold runs its course. What makes a cold different from other viral infections is that you generally wont have a high fever. Youre also unlikely to experience significant fatigue from a common cold.

  • 4. Types of cold
    Types of cold viruses
    More than 200 types of viruses can cause a cold. Those most responsible belong to one of two groups:
    Because a number of viruses can cause a cold, its possible to have several colds, one after the other, because a different virus causes each one.
    The viruses that cause a cold affect the lining of the nose and throat causing symptoms such as sore throat, runny nose and sneezing.
    Types of flu viruses
    Flu influenza is caused by types A, B or rarely C influenza virus. Only types A and B cause major outbreaks and severe disease, while type C can cause an illness in children similar to the common cold.
    Most people are infected with influenza A virus which has caused flu pandemics worldwide spread of a new disease and most epidemics widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time. You can catch flu all year round, but it is especially common in winter. When this happens it is called seasonal flu.
    Influenza A viruses are found in many species although water birds are its natural host. Types of influenza A viruses you may have heard of include Avian Bird flu and H1N1 Swine flu. Influenza B virus is primarily a human disease.

    5. Call Your Doctor About a Cold If
  • You notice an inability to swallow.
  • You have a sore throat for more than 2 or 3 days, particularly if it seems to be worsening.
  • You have an earache.
  • You have a stiff neck or sensitivity to bright lights.
  • Youre pregnant or nursing.
  • Your newborn or infant has cold symptoms.
  • Your throat hurts and your temperature is 101 degrees F or higher.
  • Your cold symptoms worsen after the third day. You may have a bacterial infection.

  • 6. How Is cold Treated
    Before cold and flu season gets into full swing, arm yourself against germs. To stave off the flu, start here: Get a flu shot. Thats the single most important thing you can do, says Aaron Glatt, MD, president and chief executive officer of St. Joseph Hospital in Bethpage, N.Y.
    If a cold or flu does catch you, make sure your medicine chest is stocked with everything you need to relieve your most miserable symptoms. WebMDs experts have the goods on the must have cold and flu remedies this season.

    7. Blow your nose sparingly
    Your natural instinct may be to blow your nose when it feels blocked, but the jurys still out on whether this is actually a good idea or not. Some studies have shown that forcefully blowing your nose can actually lead to a build up of pressure and trapped mucus in your sinuses, which may become infected.On the other hand, some experts claim that it is important to blow your nose when youre suffering from a cold, as this rids the body of surplus mucus, helping you to decongest.As a compromise, try to only blow your nose when absolutely necessary.
    Whatever you believe, make sure to blow your nose gently to avoid excess pressure and use the recommended blowing method, which involves pressing one nostril shut with your finger, while blowing very gently to clear the other, then repeating on the other side.
    You should avoid sniffing and snuffling as much as possible, as this only draws the mucus back into your head.If you have to be out of the house, be prepared and carry a handkerchief at all times.
    You should always wash your hands after blowing your nose to prevent spreading the cold virus.
    Frequent blowing can irritate your skin use some soft, good quality handkerchiefs to soothe your crazy nose fountain.

    8. Take a supplement
    Taking a supplement packed with essential vitamins and nutrients is an easy way to boost your immune system. You can take individual supplements such as a vitamin C or zinc tablets, or you can find a multivitamin which has everything in one. If youre not a fan of fish, you can still get the benefits of all the essential fatty acids fish contains by taking an Omega 3 supplement, which has been proven effective in fortifying the immune system.large array of supplements can be found at drug stores, supermarkets and health food stores. Taking an immune boosting supplement probably wont get rid of your cold any faster, but it will help you to avoid getting sick again.

    9. Prevented
    The advice youve probably heard dozens of times from your doctor wash your hands throughout the day really does prevent infections, and all the doctors we talked to said they do it religiously. I wash my hands or use a hand sanitizer before and after every patient, says Christopher Tolcher, MD, a pediatrician in the Los Angeles area and clinical assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine in Los Angeles. I probably wash my hands 40 to 50 times a day.
    What to use? Warm water and soap will kill the germs, but be sure you dont rush. I try to wash for 20 seconds sing Happy Birthday to myself twice, says Nancy Hughes, MS, RN, director of the Center for Occupational and Environmental Health in Silver Spring, Md. Shes also careful after she washes. I use a paper towel to dry my hands and to turn off the faucet, especially in public bathrooms.
    No matter how clean they may be, remember this: Hands are veritable germ factories, so keep them away from your nose and mouth. Also keep them away from your food during cold and flu season. I try to bring something I can eat with a spoon or fork, rather than a sandwich I have to handle, says Sandra Fryhofer, MD, MACP, clinical associate professor at Emory University School of Medicine and a general internist in Atlanta. If youre going to eat a sandwich, put a tissue or paper towel around it.

    10. precautions
    The best ways to protect oneself from cold and fly symptoms is good hygiene. Science has not yet developed any vaccine that could prevent cold or keep away viruses that cause cold. However some precautions can help you control the spread of the virus.
  • Wash your hands:
  • One must clean handsthoroughly and more often. Cleansing gels are now available and are safe to use.
  • Clean your surroundings:
  • One must keep the kitchen tiles and bathroom countertops clean, especially when someone in your family has a common cold.
  • Use and throw tissues:
  • One must not use cloth napkins as the virus may not be cleansed. One must as a rule sneeze and cough into tissues and then discard used tissues right away. One must then wash hands again. One must also cover their mouth while sneezing.
  • Sharing is not caring:
  • One must not share drinking glasses or utensils with other people. Those who are sick at home must use the same utensils again and those must be clearly labeled.
  • Kissing is a sin:
  • Kissing during cold is a sin as it is easiest for the vulnerable person to catch cold. One must avoid close, prolonged contact with anyone who has a cold.
  • Lifestyle modifications:
  • One must quit smoking and get involved with stress management techniques if one has greater susceptibility to acquiring the common cold.

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