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Cancer

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth.

1. Cancer
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream . Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.
More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:
a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymph systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.
When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.

2. Who Gets Cancer
In the United States, half of all men and onethird of all women will get cancer at some time in their life. This statistic includes skin cancers, most of which are easily treated. Millions of people have cancer today or have had it in the past. It affects all races and age groups, although it is more prevalent in the elderly and in certain geographical region.
Waiting for test results can be difficult for patients and their caregivers. This includes initial diagnostic tests and subsequent tests to identify returning or metastasizing spreading disease. It is important that both you and your loved one get support from friends and family members at times like this. Using relaxation techniques to relieve stress may also be helpful.

3. Symptoms
You eat pretty well some days and work out most days . But if youre like a lot of men, a trip to the doctor isnt on your to do list. That can be bad if it means you brush off early signs of cancer. One of the best ways to fight the disease is to catch it in the early stages, when its more treatable. The problem is that the warning signs for many kinds of cancer can seem pretty mild. Take a look at these 15 signs and symptoms. Some are linked more strongly to cancer than others, but all are worth knowing about and even talking over with your doctor.
  • 1. Problems When You Pee Many men have some problems peeing as they get older, like:
    A need to pee more often, especially at night Dribbling, leaking, or an urgent need to go Trouble starting to pee, or a weak stream An enlarged prostate gland usually causes these symptoms, but so can prostate cancer. See your doctor to check on the cause of the problem. He Will give you an exam to look for an enlarged prostate, and he may talk to you about a blood test called a PSA test for prostate cancer.
  • 2. Changes in Your Testicles
    If you notice a lump, heaviness, or any other change in your testicle, never delay having it looked at, says Herbert Lepor, MD, urology chairman at New York University Langone Medical Center. Unlike prostate cancer, which grows slowly, testicular cancer can take off overnight. Your doctor will look for any problems with a physical exam, blood tests, and an ultrasound of your scrotum.
  • 3. Blood in Your Pee or Stool
    These can be among the first signs of cancer of the bladder, kidneys, or colon. Its a good idea to see your doctor for any bleeding thats not normal, even if you dont have other symptoms, Lepor says. Although youre more likely to have a problem thats not cancer, like hemorrhoids or a urinary infection, its important to find and treat the cause.

  • 4. Types of Cancer
    Cancers are often described by the body part that they originated in. However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include:
  • Carcinoma:
  • Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in older adults. Nearly all cancers developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon are carcinomas.
  • Sarcoma:
  • Cancers arising from connective tissue i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve , each of which develop from cells originating in mesenchymal cells outside the bone marrow.
  • Lymphoma and leukemia:
  • These two classes of cancer arise from cells that make blood. Leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children accounting for about 30%.However, far more adults develop lymphoma and leukemia.
  • Germ cell tumor:
  • Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary seminoma and dysgerminoma, respectively .
  • Blastoma:
  • Cancers derived from immature precursor cells or embryonic tissue. Blastomas are more common in children than in older adults.

    5. Call Your Doctor About a Cancer If
    Cancer and cancer treatments may cause side effects that require immediate attention. However, it is often hard to know when to call the doctor. For example, you may struggle to differentiate between a common cold and a more serious infection. Therefore, it is important to ask your doctor to explain the potential side effects of your specific type of cancer and cancer treatment, as well as the circumstances under which you should call for help. Some side effects that require immediate attention include infections, deep vein thrombosis a potentially life threatening blood clot , and tumor lysis syndrome a condition that can cause organ failure .

    6. How Is cancer Treated
    There are numerous methods used to treat cancer. The aim of any treatment is to remove cancerous cells, making sure the cancer does not return. This can be challenging; even if just one cancerous cell remains after treatment, it has the potential to create a new tumour. The main techniques used to treat cancer are listed below.
  • Surgery
    This is a common treatment option; however, the type of surgery a person has and when they have it depends on which cancer it is and what stage it is at. Surgery removes the tumour and some normal tissue surrounding it. This is then sent to a laboratory and the results help doctors to decide whether any further treatment is needed, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Read more information about surgery and other treatments for cancers, including bowel, breast, lung, cervical and uterine cancer.
  • Chemotherapy
    In chemotherapy, medicine is used to kill cancer cells. It can be given either as a tablet or directly into a vein, via an injection or infusion. There are over 50 different forms of chemotherapy medication that can be used to treat hundreds of cancer types.
  • Radiotherapy
    Radiotherapy, also known as radiation treatment, treats many forms of cancer. It can be given outside the body by using X rays, or inside the body via a liquid that is either swallowed or injected, or by putting radioactive material in or close to the tumour. About 4 out of 10 people with cancer have radiotherapy.
  • Hormonal therapy
    Hormone therapy works by lowering the levels of hormones in your body or by stopping their effects. Prostate cancer in particular needs testosterone to grow, and some breast cancers are stimulated by oestrogen or progesterone.
  • Monoclonal antibodies
    Monoclonal antibodies are designed to directly target and attack cancer cells. This is why monoclonal antibody therapy can sometimes be referred to as targeted therapy. How often you have treatment and how many treatments you need will depend on which monoclonal antibody you have and the type of cancer.
  • Immunotherapy
    This involves taking medicines that encourage the immune system to attack cancerous cells. It is often used in the treatment of kidney cancer.

  • 7. Supplement
    If youre among the 1.5 million people in the United States diagnosed with cancer each year, you may be considering taking vitamins and supplements for cancer. Supplements, herbs, and extracts are increasingly used in integrative medicine to:
    Help strengthen the immune system
    Help ease side effects of chemotherapy and radiation.
    What should you know about vitamins and supplements for cancer patients?
    First, many supplements may interfere with your cancer treatment, so never take anything without discussing it with your cancer doctor and treatment team. Your cancer treatment center or hospital may have an integrative medicine division. Thats a good place to start if you want to know what herbs, teas, or nutritional supplements can help you stay strong and cope with treatment side effects.
    Second, research or ask your treatment team about the best supplements for your specific situation. Most supplements have not been studied extensively in large clinical trials. Its important to choose wisely, and be informed.

    8. Prevented
    Youve probably heard conflicting reports about cancer prevention. Sometimes the specific cancer prevention tip recommended in one study or news report is advised against in another. In many cases, what is known about cancer prevention is still evolving. However, its well accepted that your chances of developing cancer are affected by the lifestyle choices you make. So if youre concerned about cancer prevention, take comfort in the fact that some simple lifestyle changes can make a big difference.

    9. precautions
    Many chemotherapy drugs are considered hazardous to healthy people. Thats why the nurses and doctors who give chemotherapy will take precautions to avoid direct contact with the drugs while giving them to you.
  • Chemotherapy drugs can be dangerous to others in these ways:
  • They can cause abnormal changes in DNA. They are mutagenic.
  • They may be able to alter development of a fetus or embryo, leading to birth defects. They are teratogenic.
  • They may be able to cause another type of cancer. They are carcinogenic.
  • Some may cause skin irritation or damage.
    Nurses may wear special gloves, goggles, and gowns when preparing and giving you chemotherapy. Pharmacists or nurses prepare the drugs in areas with special ventilation systems to avoid spattering and/or inhaling the droplets that can form while mixing.
    If youÕre in the hospital, the health care professionals caring for you may use special precautions when they handle your urine and stool for a few days after treatment. This is because your body waste may contain the drugs. If you get chemotherapy at home, you will be given special instructions and precautions to ensure the safety of your caregivers and those living with you.
    Special procedures are used to dispose of materials that were used to mix and give the drugs. There are separate plastic containers to dispose of sharp items, syringes, IV tubing, and medicine bags. Gowns and gloves are disposed of in special bags. If there are any visible leaks or spills, special precautions are used to clean up the drugs.

  • 10. Herbs to Fight Cancer
    Numerous herbal remedies profess to fight cancer and its related symptoms; unfortunately, little solid evidence exists to prove their effectiveness. A few herbs may help with specific complaints: Ginger tea and peppermint tea or lozenges may ameliorate nausea, valerian root can help with anxiety and stress, capsicum cream might relieve muscle aches.
    The FDA does regulate dietary supplements; however, it treats them like foods rather than medications. Unlike drug manufacturers, the makers of supplements dont have to show their products are safe or effective before selling them on the market. Talk to your doctor or expert on herbal remedies and research carefully because some of these herbs may affect your other methods of treatment.

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