Beginning of the Earth
Have the North and South Poles ever changed their positions?
From their studies of ancient rocks and fossil animals and plants in many parts of the world, geologists know that some lands which now have a tropical climate once lay buried beneath sheets of glacier ice. They also know that what are now the Arctic and Antarctic regions at one time enjoyed a much warmer climate. These studies suggested that the North and South poles had shifted their positions throughout earth time, and, of course, the Arctic and Antarctic icecaps had moved with them.

Scientists can now measure the very weak magnetism of many different kinds of rocks. Some of this weak magnetism is left over from the original magnetism given to the rocks when they were first formed many millions of years ago. Since this original magnetism does not point to the poles as they lie today, we must assume that their locations have shifted since the rocks were formed.

Five hundred million years ago, the North Pole was near the equator in the eastern Pacific. One hundred and seventy million years ago, early in the Age of Dinosaurs, it lay in Siberia. So, since the poles have shifted in the past, there is no reason to believe that they will not continue to do so in the future. Hundreds of millions of years from now, the polar icecap might very well be somewhere in Connecticut or California or Kansas, while Alaska has a tropical climate.
Have the North and South Poles ever changed their positions?